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10 programming languages worth learning right now

If you decide to join the ranks of those who create a new technological reality with their own hands, the question arises of choosing an actual programming language. There are many of them, but not all are widely used. Most languages are outdated, but they should be given credit, as many of these pioneers served as the basis for modern developments. What programming languages are in demand these days? We will try to answer this question in the article.

The history of programming languages  how it all began

The world’s first programming language is considered to be operation codes used on a jacquard loom back in 1804. The starting point of the history of high-level programming languages is 1943-1945, when the inventor of the world’s first computer, the German Konrad Zuse, undertook the design of Plankalkül for his next Z4 computer.

After the release of the first electronic digital general-purpose computer ENIAC in the United States in 1946, programming languages began to appear like mushrooms after the rain. Let’s note the most significant:

  • Fortran (1957) is the first widely used programming language to support a wide variety of computer architectures.
  • ALGOL (1958) was an algorithmic language created by a joint committee of American and European scientists that served as the starting point for the creation of Pascal, C, C++, and Java.
  • COBOL (1959) is the first business-oriented programming language.
  • BASIC (1964) is the first programming language designed specifically for the study of people who are far from computers and mathematics.
  • Pascal (1970) – originally designed to teach students structured programming, one of the world’s most famous languages.
  • Smalltalk (1972) – later had a great influence on the development of object-oriented languages: Objective-C, Java, Ruby, Python and others.

Later, programming languages appeared, which are in the list prepared by us.

10 programming languages that employers need today

Consider the languages that are found in the tops most often.

1. JavaScript

Main areas of application

  • Web development (Frontend and Backend).
  • Development of mobile applications.
  • Create desktop applications.

JavaScript is incredibly popular right now. According to various studies, most new projects have been written in this programming language for many years in a row. It was originally developed for front-end and backend sites in 1995. Contrary to the first impression of the name, it has nothing to do with the Java programming language.

According to statistics, 97% of web applications use JavaScript to process events directly in the user’s browser. Historically, the programming language was most commonly used for the front-end. But with the advent of a powerful software platform Node.js now it is very actively used for the development of the server part of sites.

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Many companies conduct mobile cross-platform development using the React Native framework. Not so large, but still a significant share of the market is behind JavaScript in the field of desktop programs, largely thanks to Electron JS. Using this framework are written, for example, Google Chrome, Skype, Discord, Atom.

2. Python

Main areas of application

  • Web development (Backend).
  • Big Data.
  • Machine learning.

Python today is a programming language with rapidly growing popularity. It threatens to squeeze out giants like Java and C++ and take the place of the most popular in the world. All the hype around Python makes you think that this is a novelty like some Scala in its time. But no, Python was created by Guido van Rossum back in 1991.

The main advantage of this high-level programming language is its simple and intuitive syntax. Therefore, Python is taught even in schools. On the other hand, since it is interpreted, it is comparatively slow. But this problem can also be solved using, for example, Cython, an intermediate layer between Python and the C and C++ programming languages.

In Python, create the internal architecture of web applications using the Flask and Django frameworks. The latter confidently holds in the top three world leaders in its direction. Python has also successfully staked out the place of the most used programming language in Machine Learning. Therefore, the neural network that processes the photo on your smartphone is most likely written in this language. The same can be said for the algorithms that collect your data to display personalized ads.

3. Java

Main areas of application

  • Web development (Backend).
  • Development of mobile applications.
  • Creation of desktop applications and computer games.
  • Embedded systems.

The language began to be developed as a means for programming interactive televisions. Initially, it was called Oak (“Oak”), but due to a conflict with copyright, it had to be renamed. The name was taken in honor of the coffee of the same name, as hinted at by the official logo. The first version of Java was released in 1996.

Most of the mobile apps you’ll see on Google Play and the App Store are built using Java. Several of the world’s most popular projects in their field are written in this programming language: the world’s most popular computer game Minecraft, as well as search on Wikipedia.

According to some estimates, about 3% of all website servers are built using Java. However, if you look at the largest sites in the world, the situation is quite different – of the 13 platforms with the highest traffic, 8 use Java in one way or another. This suggests that the programming language is extremely popular in the Enterprise category – enterprise development.

4. C and C++

Main areas of application

  • Development, operating systems, software and drivers.
  • Design embedded systems.
  • Creation of desktop applications and computer games.
  • Robots and microcontrollers.
  • Internet of Things.
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C is the ancestor of many other programming languages and, without exaggeration, a legend. It appeared back in 1972. Initially, its task was system programming. Therefore, it is not surprising that today a lot of OS is written in C. This includes the “big three”: macOS, Windows, Linux. Also, the language is partially used in iOS and Android. Due to its extreme performance and cost-effectiveness in consuming resources, the C system makes it possible to work in real time with virtually no slowdown. And this is crucial in the design of unmanned vehicles, smart watches, sensors and so on. Not to mention, C is not tied to any particular microprocessor or system.

In the programming environment, it is believed that if you do not know C++, then you are not a programmer. That’s because this programming language does not forgive minor mistakes compared to many modern counterparts. For this reason, C++ is difficult to learn from scratch. But on the other hand, the salaries of C++ programmers are unusually high. The programming language was created back in 1983. It’s incredibly fast because it’s compilable. Only its predecessors C and Assembler are faster. The language is also universal — there are C++ compilers on every operating system. In the last decade, C++ has been very popular in gamedev. Today, half of the video game market is confidently occupied by it.

5. C #

Main areas of application

  • Creation of desktop applications and computer games.
  • Machine learning.
  • Development of mobile applications.
  • Web development (Backend).

We probably wouldn’t have seen this programming language if Java had been open source in the first place. But since Java was a closed project until 2006, Microsoft in 2000 had to design its own language for its development. The company took the best from Java and added syntax features that simplify and speed up development.

This is another programming language from the C family. It has many advantages: clean code, cross-platform, versatility, high speed of development. Many libraries are written on it. C# fits particularly well with the Microsoft ecosystem.

6. PHP

Main areas of application

  • Web development (Backend).

This programming language appeared in 1995 thanks to the Danish programmer Rasmus Lerdorf. Initially, it was a set of scripts for saving statistics of resume views in HTML format. PHP has a fairly simple syntax and has a low threshold for entry by knowledge. The language is suitable for creating console utilities and desktop applications. But in the above-mentioned areas, it is used much less often than in web development.

According to W3Techs, PHP is used in 78.6% of all websites whose backend programming language is known. In many ways, this is the merit of WordPress – the world’s most popular CMS written in PHP. The most popular frameworks for constructing the server part of php sites are as follows: Laravel, Symfony and CodeIgniter. Among the giants of the industry that use this programming language, Facebook, VKontakte, Wikipedia, Yahoo were noted. Among them is the Freelancehunt service (from the ed.).

7. R

Main areas of application

  • Intelligent data processing.
  • Predictive analytics.
  • Data visualization.
  • Machine learning.
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This programming language appeared in 1993 as a free alternative to the paid language S. Today it is the standard for the field of data analytics. Python is also suitable for work in this area, but the latter is a language for solving problems of a general nature. R, in turn, is highly specialized, created by statisticians for statisticians.

Ford uses R to determine future demand for specific models of its cars. Facebook and Twitter are improving advertising targeting with this programming language. In addition, R helped assess the prospects for vaccination against COVID-19.

Thanks to the huge selection of libraries on statistics and machine learning, R heat is received in scientific circles. The language is used to solve problems related to bioinformatics, meteorology, ecology, medicine, genetics. It is also used in agriculture.

8. Swift

Main areas of application

  • Development of mobile iOS-applications.
  • Creation of desktop applications for macOS.

In 2014, this “young fighter” replaced the obsolete Objective-C at Apple. It’s easier to learn. It also fits perfectly with the code base of its predecessor, being developed on its basis.

9. Kotlin

Main scope of application

  • Development of mobile applications for Android.

Another young representative of programming languages for creating software for smartphones and tablets. Designed in 2011, it threatens to supplant Java in this area. A large number of bugs of the predecessor have been fixed, in particular, the amount of code has been significantly reduced. At the same time, interchangeability with Java is observed.

So far, Kotlin is gaining momentum, but you should know that Google has included it in the official toolkit for developing under the “green robot” – Android Studio. Moreover, at the Google I/O 2019 conference, it was announced that this programming language has become a priority in the development of Android.

10. Go

Main areas of application

  • Web development (Backend).
  • Writing console utilities and network software.

This time, Google again intervenes, but with its own programming language. Go, or Golang, appeared in 2009. The corporation took this step because other languages for its projects proved to be complex, slow and/or inflexible. Today, Go is also used by such giants as Intel, IBM, Avito, Ozon and VKontakte.

The advantages of Golang are reduced syntax, lack of inheritance with classes and objects, parallelism. The latter involves the simultaneous performance of a function with any other.

Conclusion

To decide on the choice of programming language, first find the area in which you want to work. As can be seen from the list, today programmers specializing in web development, in particular, on its backend component, are most needed. We also need those who will develop mobile and desktop applications. Machine learning and work with Big Data are also in demand.

Shubham

Written by Shubham

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